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  • Solving a condition where a person is unconscious and not breathing.
  • The goal of CPR is to restore the supply of oxygenated blood to the brain. The main success factor is the speed of initiation and the effectiveness of the resuscitation. After 4-5 min from the cessation of circulation of oxygenated blood in the brain, brain cells begin to die irreversibly at normal temperature. Even if professional rescuers later manage to restore circulation, higher brain functions are permanently damaged. 

What are the causes (the person is unconscious and not breathing)?

Cardiac (heart)

  • myocardial infarction
  • ventricular fibrillation
  • mechanical damage
  • drowning
  • suffocation by a foreign object
  • bleeding to death,…


  • Environmental control
  • Addressing, shaking
  • Head tilt and breathing check
  • Call 112
  • 30 chest compressions: 2 rescue breaths continuously until arrival of the ambulance OR
  • Chest compressions continuously until arrival of paramedics

Environmental control

We will look around and remove the danger if possible (thinking of our own safety).

Addressing injured person, shaking by both shoulders

We loudly address the injured person, “Hello sir/madam, can you hear me?”

If the person does not respond → step forward and shake both shoulders.

Airway clearance and control of breathing

Place the edge of your hand on your forehead and put two fingers under your chin.

Bend the head backwards.

Check breathing ideally for 7 seconds, but no more than 10 seconds.

By tilting the head, the airway is cleared → the tongue pulls away from the top palate.  

!!!  Watch out for “carp breathing”, which occurs in more than 50% of people with cardiac arrest. So-called terminal labored breathing is accompanied by breaths at strikingly long intervals (“intermittent gasps”), resembling the breathing of a carp after it has been pulled out of the water. Gasping breathing is considered a sign of cardiac arrest and requires immediate initiation of resuscitation.

  • oko

    we observe the chest rising and falling

  • vzduch

    we observe the chest rising and falling

  • ucho

    we can hear the inhale and exhale

Calling the 112 emergency line

Use the speakerphone.

Never hang up first.

Wait for questions.

WHERE are we located?

WHAT happened?

WHO did it happen to?

Chest compression

Perform 30 chest compressions and administer 2 rescue breaths (or continuous chest compressions)

Compress chest 5-6 cm deep on a firm support (not a mattress, for example)

Compression rate 100–120 compressions per minute (performed to the rhythm of the song “Jingle Bells” or “Stayin’ Alive”)

Compression is performed in the centre of the chest with both hands, but only the edge of the palm compresses.

Determining where to perform chest compressions: It is located in the middle of the chest between the clavicle and the last arch of the ribs (the site is marked with a green circle).   

Visualization of effectively performed CPR

Rescue breaths

Tilt the head back (pulling on the chin and forehead).

Pinch the nose with your thumb and forefinger.

When inhaled correctly, the chest will rise.

The rescue breath should take 1 second and the total time of interruption of compressions should not be longer than 5 seconds!

For your own protection, you can use a resuscitation cover or a resuscitation mask (included with the automated external defibrillator – AED) when giving rescue breaths.

When we don’t have to give rescue breaths?

  • With damage to the oral cavity (bloody oral cavity, vomit);
  • Risk of infection and no resuscitation cover/mask available (unknown person);
  • Rescuer is not trained

Rescue breaths do not need to be given in these cases. It is sufficient to perform without interruption chest compressions.

When can we end CPR?

  • Restoration of cardiac activity occurs, manifestations: awakening of the affected person, spontaneous movement, opening of the eyes, coughing.
  • Complete physical exhaustion of the rescuer.