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Causes of unconsciousness

  • non-accidental – e.g. alcohol poisoning, hypoglycaemia, epileptic seizure, stroke
  • traumatic – concussion, bruising or damage to the skull and brain


  • Environmental control
  • Addressing, shaking
  • Airway clearance + breathing check
  • Body alignment of the casualty + pocket search
  • Placing the casualty in a stable position
  • Calling the emergency number 112

Environmental control

We look around and remove the danger if possible (thinking of our own safety).

Addressing, shaking

  • We loudly address the injured person, “Hello sir/madam, can you hear me?”
  • If the person does not respond → step forward and shake both shoulders.

Airway clearance + breathing check

  • Place the edge of your hand on their forehead and put two fingers under their chin.
  • Bend the head backwards.
  • Check the breathing with the three senses, ideally for 7 seconds, but no more than 10 seconds.
  • oko

    we observe the chest rising and falling

  • vzduch

    we observe the chest rising and falling

  • ucho

    we can hear the inhale and exhale

  • We check the pockets and warning signs – whether the person has an insulin pump on his/her body or belt, or an insulin pen in his/her pocket, etc.
  • Adjust the limbs.
  • Turn the casualty on his/her side towards you. Straighten the arm under the head and tilt the head to ensure airway patency.

Placing the casualty in a stable position

  • Adjust the person on the side so that they have stability.
  • Always make sure that the head is back and the person is still breathing.
  • Check breathing at least once a minute.

Calling the emergency number 112

  • Use the speakerphone.
  • Never hang up first.
  • Wait for questions.

First aid algorithm for unconsciousness

Traumatic unconsciousness

In case of traumatic unconsciousness, NEVER put the victim in a stabilized position. In these cases there is a high risk of spinal, head and pelvic injuries, therefore we do not manipulate the injured person, we only ensure the airway patency by tilting the head and wait until the arrival of the ambulance.