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Causes of bleeding

  • traffic accidents
  • serious workplace accidents (accidents with machines, saws, circular saws, …)
  • carelessness with sharp objects
  • amputation injuries
  • open fractures


In case of massive bleeding, there is the least time to save the affected person. After 1-1.5 minutes of massive bleeding, a person loses such a large amount of blood that rescue is no longer possible. Therefore, we first stop the bleeding and only then call the emergency medical service.

In general, pressure works to stop bleeding. Depending on the site of injury, there are 4 ways to stop bleeding:

  • wound pressure
  • pressure dressing
  • tourniquet
  • wound packing


  • Environmental control
  • Pressure directly on the wound with own hand/fingers
  • Use of gloves
  • Applying pressure to the wound
  • Anti-shock measures
  • Calling the 112 emergency line

Environmental control

  • Look around for hazards and secure the source of the injury (switch off the machine, put away sharp objects, etc.).
  • Use disposable gloves or another alternative (plastic bag, plastic bag, etc.)

Pressure directly on the wound with own hand/fingers

Ask the injured person to apply pressure to the wound with their own hand or fingers (depending on the size of the wound).

Use of gloves

If the injured person presses directly on the wound, use disposable gloves or an alternative (plastic bag, …).

Applying pressure to the wound

Push directly into the bleeding wound with your hand or fingers and apply pressure.

Pressure bandage

  • Insert one unrolled bandage directly into the wound and create pressure by bandaging with the other. The ideal is to use one conventional hydrophilic and the other elastic.
  • If the dressing is leaking (blood is getting out on top of the dressing), press firmly with your own hands on the wound through the dressing.


  • We use it for devastating and amputation injuries, or when we cannot stop bleeding with pressure or pressure bandages.
  • We always use the tourniquet only on the upper part of the limb (thigh, arm above the elbow) above the wound.
  • A tourniquet  is properly applied if the wound has stopped bleeding.
  • When a tourniquet is applied, indicate the time it was applied so that this information is available to the rescuer.

 Wound Packing

  • We use it mainly in places where a tourniquet or pressure bandage cannot be used (e.g. groin, armpits).
  • We use on deep wounds or devastating injuries with great depth.
  • We expose the wound site and gradually fill the wound with a bandage or gauze so that the bandage fills the entire wound area.
  • We then apply pressure to the wound through the swabbed dressing.

Anti-shock measures

  • The person is always treated in a sitting or lying position.
  • If the person is pale, faint, tired or nauseous, we need to call the emergency number 112.
  • If the injured person is cold, cover them with isothermal foil from the first aid kit or a blanket or clothing (e.g. jacket, sweatshirt).

Calling the 112 emergency line

  • Use the speakerphone.
  • Never hang up first.
  • Wait for questions.

First aid algorithm for bleeding